InterSTEM Research Journal for 2020-2021 Spring Session

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Modeling Gravitational Wave Emission from Neutron Star and Black Hole Binaries

Gravitational waves (GW) are deformations in the curvature of spacetime, a fundamental consequence of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Due to the vast distances separating Earth from other stellar objects, only the greatest disturbances in the fabric of space can be detected by Earth-based GW observatories. Our research focuses on modeling the gravitational waves emitted by neutron star (NS) binaries and inspiraling black holes and comparing these models to data gathered by LIGO (Laser Interferometer GW Observatory) and the Virgo Interferometer. The results will serve as a test of the accuracy of general relativity and provide an estimate for the frequency and magnitude of GW detections by fourth-generation observatories.

Mathematical models of NS binaries will first be analytically computed with the Newtonian approximations; the results will then be generalized to black hole inspirals by considering time dilation due to general relativity. To consider more complicated interactions of stellar objects, numerical solutions will be generated through the Runge-Kutta approximation method. The generated models will be compared to open-source data from the ATNF Pulsar Database and papers published by the LIGO and Virgo Collaborations.

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Nishant R. Kumar

Nishant is a junior at Ryan International School, Greater Noida. He is passionate about space science. And is interested in studying astrophysics. He enjoys gaming and listening to music in his free time.

Alexander Chi

Alex is a sophomore at Westlake High School in Thousand Oaks, California. He is passionate about mathematics and physics. Alex enjoys playing the violin as well as fencing in his free time.

Manthan Chheda

Manthan is a freshman at St. John's Universal School in Mumbai, India. He has an aptitude for many subjects but science stands out the most. He got a bug for science out of curiosity in middle school. In his free time, Manthan enjoys making maps, listening to music and speedcubing.

Mariah House

Mariah is a senior at Bondurant-Farrar High School in Iowa, United States. She is passionate about studying space sciences/aeronautics. In her free time, she likes to play piano and percussion, watch movies, organize politically and weight lift.

Laksh Bhambhani

Laksh Bhambhani is currently a junior at Homestead High School. He is passionate about computer programming, machine learning and robotics. Other than that, he loves to spend time at his robotics club and play music instruments. He also leads elementary school robotics and soccer teams.

Julia Ding

Julia is a sophomore at LASA in Austin, Texas. She is passionate about topics relating to STEM, a few of which include mathematics and computer science. Julia enjoys playing the cello as well as running/playing tennis.

Nathan Banketa

Nathan is a junior at Wylie High School in Dallas, Texas. He is most passionate about computer programming, machine learning, anime, and Overwatch. He enjoys running and gaming although he hasn’t been able to do it very often in the past couple of months.

Ailiya Treesa

Ailiya is a junior at RCJPS, India. She is very interested in artificial intelligence and machine learning. In her free time she enjoys reading sci-fi novels and playing instruments such as the piano and the ukulele.

Effective Deblurring Methods for Lung Cancer Detection

Blurring of images occurs in many fields, causing significant problems and making it unusable due to inadequate clarity. Blur objects are created from relative motion during exposure between a camera and a scene. While the use of short exposure will minimize blur, this results in an inevitable trade-off with increased noise. Hence, it is desirable to computerically erase blur and obtain as much information as possible, especially in the medical field to accurately detect diseases. Deblurring is a major technique that is developed to restore the lost true image. To tackle this problem, we present blind approaches, which is deblurring by estimating the blur kernel. Through this program, we would find a list of blur removal methods that could be used to extract features from unclear images and accurately diagnose diseases such as cancer.

Multiple deblurring methods such as using GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks), CNNs (Convolutional Neural Network), etc would be worked and then tested on multiple medical applications and analyzed based on their overall effectiveness. Datasets for applications such as these have been used in previous research papers and those would be referred to for the same.

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Biology Group 1

Our research topic will be about how different blood types can trigger different responses to biological processes. This topic delves into the immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, etc. Different blood types can change how a person carries out a certain biological process or how they respond to a biological change. Examples include how blood type can affect the susceptibility of COVID-19 and how the Rh factor can influence pregnancies in mothers. Looking at resources online, we have found that this information is not easily found and there is not as much emphasis for the public eye to notice. Thus, we want to compile information and data from previous research papers and conduct our own data analysis project to create our own conclusions.

Our goal is to educate the public and be aware of the biological science that occurs with blood types. First, we will do background research online and talk with relevant professors and scientists in this field to have a better understanding of our research topic. Secondly, we will read multiple research papers on this topic to have a better grasp on specificity. Thirdly, it is important that we meet with patients who have been affected by certain blood types in order to make a statistical analysis portion for our research. Fourthly, due to the virtual format, we will try our best to come to conclusions on a theoretical stance but try to capture the data accurately. Finally, we will compile all of this information and data into a single paper and have our own conclusions to publish. Obviously, we will add more to this plan in the future but this is the skeleton that we have set forth for the next few months.

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Jibran Khan

Jibran is a junior at Brooklyn Technical Highschool in New York. He is passionate about the different biological interactions and systems that make up organisms. In his free time, he enjoys conversing with his friends online and playing video games.

Achyut Pathak

Achyut is a sophomore at Oakton High School in Virginia. He is passionate about medicine and molecular biology. In his free time, He like to spend time with my friends, play soccer, watch movies, and play video games.

Maria Theodoras

Maria is a junior at Katedralskolan in Lund, Sweden. She enjoys science subjects and is interested in studying medicine at university in the future. In her free time, Maria enjoys playing the French Horn and spending time with animals.

Sreelakshmi Manoj

Sreelakshmi is a senior at St. Patrick’s Academy, Angamaly. She is very passionate about STEM, particularly Biology and Computer Science, and hopes to pursue AI in Medicine. In her down time, Sreelakshmi loves to read fiction and fantasy.

Simone Rothaupt

Simone is a sophomore at Thousand Oaks High School in Ventura, California. She enjoys exploring STEM subjects, particularly human biology and toxicology. In her free time, she loves to run cross country and cook meals for her family.

Garv Goswami

Garv Goswami is currently a junior at Nutley High School. He has a strong passion for neurology, pediatrics, and computer programming. In his free time, Garv enjoys playing soccer, swimming, and reading novels.

Model of Smoke-Induced Lung Cancer

One of the biggest causes of lung cancer comes from the different methods of smoking such as vaping, cigarette smoking, etc. When smoked, while substances such as cigarettes release nicotine into the body which stimulates the release of dopamine in the body and creates a feeling of pleasure, the inhalation of nicotine is accompanied by a vast array of toxins that are absorbed by alveoli and bronchioles near the lining of the lung. Not only can this cause chronic inflammation in the lungs, but the toxins may be able to greatly disturb transduction pathways and lead to an increased risk in the development of cancer in the lungs.

The goal of the project is to be able to not only find likely transduction pathways that are disturbed and result in cell cycle malfunctioning, but to also be able to compare different smoking methods and to mathematically model differences in how greatly the risks of lung cancer increase through second hand smoking, cigarette smoking, and vaping.

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